It is subdivided according to the ecosystems and climates in a Patagonia Andina with a humid climate due to the intense precipitations that the humid winds unload on the Patagonian Andes and to a lesser extent on the chained mountain ranges and drumlins that constitute trees of coniferous species like the giant pehuenes and Lahuanes and fagáceas as lenga and iré. Part of the Patagonian Andean subregion south of 45 ° S is covered by extensive perennial continental ice fields and the glaciers that now feed their rivers to the rivers of almost all of Patagonia during the Wurmiense covered much of the Patagonia by carving erosively Glacial valleys and at the foot of these valleys that gave rise, after the end of that ice age, to the great lakes of glacial origin characteristic of the south central Chile and the Argentine Patagonia (Lacar, Nahuel Huapi, Lake Buenos Aires , Lake Argentino, Lake Fagnano, etc.), to the east of the currently narrow forest belt of the Andean Patagonia is located the eastern Patagonia extraandina with a very continental climate (still near the ocean) and therefore with little rainfall.
Region with an intermediate climate between temperate and the continental climate of height is located in the center-west of Argentina. The plains are interposed between the mountain cords, those of the North are located at a higher height (2 300 m) and are in the form of circular or elongated pockets or valleys. The most important are located in the valley of Santa Maria, the field of Andalgalá, the Belen, the Talampaya and the poplar of Chilecito.
The conformation of the relief affects the climatic conditions, and although the entire region is subject to the humid summer winds of the Northeast, at the northern end of the Sierras Pampeanas are located the highest mountain altitudes with elevations that reach 5000 m above sea level As it happens in the General Hill Belgrano or in the Aconquija.
It limits to the North with the region of the Northwest, to the East with the mountain ranges pampeanas and the Pampas plain, to the South with the Andean and extrandine Patagonia and to the West with the Republic of Chile. Three sub-regions can be distinguished: The mountainous zone, subdivided in Cordillera de los Andes and Precordillera of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza; Oasis of irrigation; The plains of the East.
The Argentine northwest (NOA) is a historical-geographical region of the Argentine Republic, formed by the provinces of: Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, and Santiago del Estero.
Cerro de los Siete Colores in Purmamarca, Los Cardones National Park, Cuesta del Obispo, one Salta’s accesses to the Calchaquíes Valleys, El Nevado Ojos del Salado, with its 6891,3 msnm, 1 is the highest volcano in the world, , Antofalla Volcano. Vineyards in Cafayate, Salta.
Its boundaries are the Pilcomayo River to the North, the Paraguay and Paraná rivers to the East, the Salado River to the South and the North West región.
Argentinean Mesopotamia is a relatively heterogeneous region since the missionary plateau covered by low mountain ranges like the Sierra de Misiones has more similarities with the Brazilian plateau, the estuaries and lagoons of the Iberá can be considered part of the Chaco and the Province of Entre Ríos can be compared to the Pampa region or to Uruguay. It holds the provinces of Misiones, Corrientes, and Entre Ríos, and has four subregions: the Missionary Plateau, the Esteros y Lagos del Iberá, the Lomeria Entrerrianas and the Mercedina Plateau, and the Delta of the Paraná River.
It is an area to the West and South of the Pampa region, which is transitional to Patagonia. It has mainly continental climate, that is to say with important thermal range, having frequent very cold winters with temperatures below the 0 ° C. The vegetation is quite similar to that of the Cuyana crossings and the steppes of the Eastern Patagonia extraandina, that is to say: its vegetation is mostly hard grasslands.
It comprises the Antarctic are claimed by Argentina, there are important climatic, therefore ecological differences according to the areas of such vast territory of almost a million square kilometers of firm lands almost totally covered by an inland area.